Enuresis is most often a multifactorial problem. In order to understand the causes and help the child cope with it, the efforts and patience of parents and the participation of doctors from several specialties are required. Therefore, the medical center “XXI Century” has developed a …
How pleasant it is to return home, most people would agree. Probably, except for those who suffer from reactions to household allergens. It is at home that they have to suffer with sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and skin irritations. These very unpleasant symptoms often stem …
Allergy is an unusual sensitivity to various substances that do not cause painful reactions in most people. The answer to why some people have allergies, while others do not, lies in the peculiarities of the immune system of each person.
Immunity is a term that characterizes the body’s ability to recognize and destroy everything that is perceived by the human immune system as “alien”, and therefore harmful to health. Such enemies can be viruses that cause flu, SARS and other infections, as well as bacteria – the cause of tonsillitis, pneumonia, etc., poisons, fungi. For the immune system of some people, house dust, pollen, mold, certain types of food, etc., become enemies. Then these substances become allergens, and the person develops an allergy. In response to such interference, our body produces protective antibody proteins that attack and neutralize these hostile elements.
Allergic diseases, what are they?
Food allergy is a condition of increased sensitivity of the body to food products. Symptoms: acute urticaria, atopic dermatitis, various disorders of the digestive system.
Pollinosis is an allergy to pollen. It manifests itself as sneezing, watery nasal discharge, lacrimation, itching, sometimes swelling of the eyes, unpleasant painful sensations in the mouth and throat, in severe cases – attacks of suffocation.
Bronchial asthma is the most severe manifestation of an allergic respiratory disease. Bronchial asthma may not be allergic, but in this case we will only touch on allergic asthma. In asthma, as a rule, there is an allergic inflammation of the respiratory system, from the nasal mucosa to the smallest bronchi and bronchioles. The main symptom of bronchial asthma – difficulty breathing – is a direct consequence of the compression of the smooth muscles of the bronchi, which entails other structural changes.
How is allergy diagnosed?
Obviously, there are certain symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, rashes, redness of the skin, which we associate with allergies. However, there are many other diseases that have similar manifestations. In order to determine what kind of disease caused these symptoms, it is imperative to see a doctor. In addition to examination and questions, the doctor has several more accurate and objective methods to confirm the diagnosis (skin tests with allergens, blood test – laboratory test with allergens). When the question arises of choosing a method for determining the “culpable” allergens: skin testing or blood tests, the final decision is always made by the doctor, whose main task is to ensure the safety of the patient.
How are allergies treated?
Each person is individual, he is characterized by a certain intensity of symptoms and the severity of the disease, which is extremely important for the choice of treatment tactics.
Today in the world there are three main ways to deal with allergic diseases:
Stopping or reducing contact with the allergen or irritant.
Using medications to relieve symptoms.
Allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT)
Unfortunately, none of the drugs used to relieve allergy symptoms can change the body’s response to the allergen. Allergic diseases often develop incrementally: first, these are mild manifestations of rhinitis, then they become more pronounced, then dry cough and asthma attacks may join – bronchial asthma develops in 50% of cases of allergic rhinitis. Another feature of allergies is that medications, which initially relieve all symptoms well, eventually cease to help. In addition, the reaction season may lengthen – for example, if at first the body reacts to pollen, when its concentration in the air reaches its highest point, then later the symptoms will bother you during the entire flowering period. And the most unpleasant thing is that against the background of pronounced sensitivity to one allergen, a reaction to new irritants can join – for example, grass pollen or house dust mites.
ASIT is the only method to date that can change the body’s attitude to the allergen and prevent the further development of allergies. This method has been used all over the world for a long time, and is the most modern and effective.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy reduces the body’s sensitivity to the allergen to which it has a reaction. The patient receives a series of injections with microdoses of allergens hostile to him (house dust, house dust mite, pollen) in a gradual increasing concentration, as a result of which the resistance to these allergens increases.
This is the only method that not only relieves symptoms, but also eliminates the cause of allergies – an inadequate response of the immune system to the external environment. ASIT treatment is most commonly used in patients with pollen allergies. Unlike food or household allergies, where you can limit contact with the allergen, with hay fever it is impossible to completely get rid of contact with pollen allergens during the flowering season. Carrying out ASIT therapy before the flowering season allows you to spend this period without drugs and unpleasant symptoms.
The choice of the allergen (s) for ASIT is carried out on the basis of the specific allergological diagnostics previously carried out to the patient. After the exact determination of the allergen, the drug for treatment is selected, the method of administration and the duration of therapy are determined.
The optimal age of patients for whom ASIT is recommended ranges from 5 to 50 years. The earlier treatment is started (at an early stage of the disease), the higher the likelihood of a good effect.
ASIT can significantly weaken the clinical manifestations of hay fever and reduce the likelihood of its transition to more severe forms, in particular, to bronchial asthma.
Contraindications for ASIT:
Exacerbation of an allergic disease
Ischemic heart disease in the acute phase
Circulatory failure https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulatory_collapse
Hepatitis, nephritis in the acute phase with signs of dysfunction of these organs
Diseases of the blood
Diseases of the thyroid gland
The presence of foci of active infection
Fibroids of the uterus, polyps, etc.
In the first hours, days, weeks of life, the intestinal microflora of the child is formed, and breastfeeding plays a significant role in this. Correct colonization of the baby’s intestines prevents the development of allergic reactions and food intolerances. What can a nursing mother do …
Symptoms associated with lesions of the mucous membrane of the eyes are found in many allergic diseases. One of them is hay fever, a widespread seasonal allergic disease that is caused by plant pollen.
The complaints of hay fever are numerous and varied. The most typical manifestation of the disease is rhino-conjunctival syndrome: the simultaneous appearance of itching in the inner corners of the eyes, lacrimation, photophobia, edema of the eyelids, severe itching in the nasopharynx, attacks of painful sneezing with liquid, sometimes abundant discharge of mucus from the nose. Also, with seasonal rhinosinuitis, symptoms such as sensations of a foreign body in the eye, itching, and swelling often occur.
With allergies, the mucous membrane of the eye changes, becomes more vulnerable, therefore, an infection can overlap with allergic problems, and then the mucous discharge becomes purulent, i.e. purulent conjunctivitis occurs. Another disease associated with eye damage is year-round allergic rhino-conjunctivitis (with household sensitization) i.e. in case of reaction to house dust, house dust mites and animal epidermis.
Finding the reason
Household dust is a complex mixture of a wide variety of volatile particles. The nature of house dust varies from house to house. For example, someone has old carpeting and carpets on the walls, while another has a pet and upholstered furniture, a third has a century-old feather bed, and someone else has cockroaches and fish at home, which are fed with dry food, and on the wall mold from an ever-leaking pipe. All taken together makes up the bulk of house dust. With household allergies, eye discomfort is not the main and main symptom, but complements the entire clinic of manifestations in this disease.
Obviously, there are certain symptoms that we associate with allergies, such as nasal congestion, runny nose with watery discharge, frequent sneezing, watery eyes. For the doctor, they are the first clue to the diagnosis. However, there are many other diseases that have similar manifestations. That is why, in the event of such symptoms, it is imperative to consult a doctor.
If a person who has not had an allergy before has itching, redness, swelling, discharge from the eyes, and there are no other symptoms of an allergic nature, most likely it is not an allergy and you need to contact a therapist or ophthalmologist. If eye damage occurs on the background of allergies, then to an allergist. In addition to questioning, the doctor has several accurate and objective methods to confirm the diagnosis.
Skin tests are one of the most informative diagnostic tests for allergies. The essence of the method is that droplets containing allergens are applied to the skin of the forearm: house dust, pollen, animal hair and epidermis, as well as food allergens. Then, in the places where the droplets are located, the skin is slightly pierced or incisions (scarification) are applied, so that the solution with the allergen penetrates the skin. If there is an allergy to any substance, then in either case, redness and swelling form in the place where the allergen is present. The reaction develops within 15-20 minutes. Typically, such tests are carried out from the age of three.
There is another way to diagnose allergies – blood tests to detect specific antibodies to allergens. The reliability of this method is lower than skin testing, but it helps in diagnosis in the following cases: a) for children, if the child is afraid of a skin test; b) if there is a risk of a severe skin reaction to a skin test; c) if the person is taking antihistamines and some other medications that may affect the accuracy of the test; d) if there are serious skin problems. Accurate diagnosis of an allergic condition is very important for choosing the most effective treatment regimen and methods.
In addition to medicines that can reduce allergy symptoms, including those from the eyes, there is a method of allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT). The patient is injected with drugs with hostile allergens in a gradually increasing concentration. As a result, the body’s resistance to these allergens increases. To achieve a lasting effect, 3-5 courses of therapy are carried out or one course before the season. Its effect on hay fever reaches 90%. ASIT therapy can be carried out in the form of injections or preparations in the form of oral solutions.
There are also such allergic manifestations as damage to the skin around the eyes, the so-called periorbital dermatitis. Then the skin around the eyes (the area of the upper and lower eyelids) turns red, dry skin, peeling and itching are noticeable. In rare cases, there is an isolated lesion of only the skin around the eyes, more often such manifestations are characteristic of food allergies. It is for an allergic manifestation that the main symptom is characteristic – itching of the skin. The reasons for such complaints can be, both with food allergies (mainly), and with contact allergies (external exposure to various substances, allergens).
It should be understood that skin lesions around the eyes or on other parts of the face may not always be due to allergies. I do not advise you to independently use various creams and ointments without finding out the reasons. If we talk about allergies, then allergic eye damage is part of the symptom complex of allergic disease in general. And here you need to treat not only the eyes, but the body as a whole. This is a general hypoallergenic nonspecific diet and adherence to a hypoallergenic lifestyle and an individual hypoallergenic diet for pollen allergy.
Recommendations for hay fever
If you have diagnosed hay fever, then you must adhere to the following recommendations:
2 weeks before the expected flowering of plants, it is necessary to use antiallergic nasal sprays and eye drops prescribed by a doctor to prevent severe reactions.
Adhere to the urban lifestyle, try not to leave the house on the street in the morning (until 11:00).
Refrain from trips out of town and walks in the forested area, keep the windows tightly closed, and, if necessary, put on a gauze mesh, periodically moistening it.
Do not forget to wear goggles and a light hat when going outside.
When returning, it is necessary to rinse the nose, preferably with sterile seawater preparations: Aqua Maris, Aqualor, Marimer. With a sore throat, Aquamaris throat will reduce the discomfort. For the eyes, artificial tear preparations (for example, artificial tear drops) are suitable. In this case, the tear film will be restored, the corneal epithelium will be less traumatized by the effect of pollen. Take a shower and wash your hair.
In case of strong manifestations, it is best to go on vacation to another climatic zone, where there is no “dangerous” plant or it does not bloom.
It must be remembered that not only pollen in the air is dangerous, but also some herbal medicines, cosmetics, herbal products (cross-allergy).
Recommendations for patients with household allergies to dust and house dust mites.
Daily wet cleaning of the house. Children with allergies should not be present when cleaning the house.
The most important point in creating hypoallergenic conditions is to create order in the bedroom. If patients with allergies spend 8 hours a day in an allergen-free atmosphere, all body systems – lungs, respiratory tract, immune system – will have a chance to rest and develop resistance in order to go to the outside world with renewed vigor the next day:
no soft chairs, fleecy carpets, blankets, curtains, soft toys;
nothing should be stored under the bed;
never let animals enter the bedroom;
pillows should be made of special hypoallergenic materials, no feathers and goose down. The same is true for blankets;
treat mattresses with acaricidal agents https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acaricide (special solutions for the destruction of dust mites);
refrain from flowers. You should not use cosmetics, perfumes, not only for the patient, but also for relatives and those around him.
Creating a low-allergenic life, careful fulfillment of doctor’s prescriptions will help to cope with this problem.
Allergy – this word is familiar to everyone. Now it is almost impossible to meet a person in whose family or environment there would be no people suffering from allergies. According to the studies of the last ten years, in developed countries there is a …
A hypoallergenic diet should be followed not only for food allergies and atopic dermatitis, but also for any other allergic diseases (allergic rhinitis, allergic laryngotracheitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever).
Such a diet is prescribed taking into account the individual characteristics of the disease in each child separately, paying attention to allergies to specific foods. So, for example, a hypoallergenic diet is dairy, dairy-free, taking into account the intolerance of certain types of cereals, etc.
With a non-specific diet, the following are excluded from the diet:
“Obligatory allergens”, i.e. foods that most often cause allergic reactions (eggs, fish, seafood, legumes: peas, beans, soy, peanuts; nuts, honey, strawberries, pomegranate, kiwi, melon, black currant, mushrooms).
Extractive substances, seasonings (spices, spices) that irritate the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract and increase its permeability to food allergens. The elimination of extractive substances is achieved by replacing meat broths with soups based on vegetable broths, fried vegetables and meat – boiled and steamed.
Dishes and products containing additives (dyes, preservatives, spices). Among the dyes: tartrazine (E 102) and yellow-orange dye (E 110). Preservatives – benzoic acid (E 210), benzoates (E 211-219), sorbic acid (E 200-203). Flavoring additives – sodium glutamate (E 621) and similar ones (E 622-625). Canned food, smoked meats, gastronomic products, carbonated drinks, etc. are excluded.
Foods rich in histamine (an element that causes inflammation) such as sauerkraut, spinach, ham, fermented cheeses, soy, cocoa, tomatoes.
Histamine liberators (foods that enhance the production of histamine) – strawberries, citrus fruits, chocolate, coffee, tomatoes, bananas, peanuts, fish.
Some products appear in several positions, since they can also be allergens and histamine liberators (for example, chocolate, citrus fruits, peanuts, etc.)
It is not uncommon for children with food allergies https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_allergy to tolerate cereals. Most often, there is intolerance to rye, wheat, less often – to oats, rice, corn, buckwheat, barley.
With age, in children from 2 to 7 years of age, hypersensitivity to foods such as cow’s milk, eggs, and wheat decreases. While in older children, the role of allergens such as fish, celery, peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts, cashews, and tomatoes is increasing.
Allowed subject to portability:
various cereals (except semolina);
fermented milk drinks (kefir, biokefir, bifilin, narine, acidophilus);
mild cheese varieties;
lean meat (beef, pork, rabbit, turkey);
specialized canned meat for baby food;
from vegetables – all types of cabbage, zucchini, squash, light pumpkin, parsley, dill, young green peas, green beans;
fruits and berries – green apples, pears, light cherries and plums, gooseberries;
juices from the above fruits and berries are diluted 1/3 with boiled water;
large leaf black tea, no flavors;
refined vegetable oil (corn, sunflower, olive);
bread, – “gray” varieties: “Darnitskiy”, cereal bread, unsweetened corn and rice sticks and flakes, simple drying.
Pre-treatment of some products is used: potatoes, peeled and finely chopped, are soaked in cold water for 2-12 hours, the rest of the vegetables and cereals are soaked for 1-2 hours, the meat is subjected to double digestion.
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive disease of the pancreas, characterized by the appearance during an exacerbation of an acute inflammatory process, the gradual replacement of the organ parenchyma with connective tissue and the development of insufficiency of the exo- and endocrine function of the gland. …